Sabbath, March 24, 2007
BY ELLEN G. WHITE
1. What did not exist in Ellen G. White’s writing of August 1849 concerning this doctrine?
Hebrews 9:24-26 For Christ is not entered into the holy places made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us: Nor yet that he should offer himself often, as the high priest entereth into the holy place every year with blood of others; For then must he often have suffered since the foundation of the world: but now once in the end of the world hath he appeared to put away sin by the sacrifice of himself.
“By 1849, when the early SDA group had well established its identity, Ellen G. White wrote: ‘I saw that Jesus would not leave the Most Holy Place, until every case was decided either for salvation or destruction’ (Present Truth, 1:22, August, 1849; reprinted in EW 36), yet she did not call it the judgment.” –S.D.A. Encyclopedia, Commentary Reference Series, vol. 10, p. 671.
BY DAVID ARNOLD AND JOSEPH BATES
2. How did two other early Seventh-day Adventists contribute to the development of this doctrine?
Matthew 25:6 And at midnight there was a cry made, Behold, the bridegroom cometh; go ye out to meet him.
Exodus 28:15-29 And thou shalt make the breastplate of judgment with cunning work; after the work of the ephod thou shalt make it; of gold, of blue, and of purple, and of scarlet, and of fine twined linen, shalt thou make it. Foursquare it shall be being doubled; a span shall be the length thereof, and a span shall be the breadth thereof. And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four rows of stones: the first row shall be a sardius, a topaz, and a carbuncle: this shall be the first row. And the second row shall be an emerald, a sapphire, and a diamond. And the third row a ligure, an agate, and an amethyst. And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their inclosings. And the stones shall be with the names of the children of Israel, twelve, according to their names, like the engravings of a signet; every one with his name shall they be according to the twelve tribes. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate chains at the ends of wreathen work of pure gold. And thou shalt make upon the breastplate two rings of gold, and shalt put the two rings on the two ends of the breastplate. And thou shalt put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate. And the other two ends of the two wreathen chains thou shalt fasten in the two ouches, and put them on the shoulderpieces of the ephod before it. And thou shalt make two rings of gold, and thou shalt put them upon the two ends of the breastplate in the border thereof, which is in the side of the ephod inward. And two other rings of gold thou shalt make, and shalt put them on the two sides of the ephod underneath, toward the forepart thereof, over against the other coupling thereof, above the curious girdle of the ephod. And they shall bind the breastplate by the rings thereof unto the rings of the ephod with a lace of blue, that it may be above the curious girdle of the ephod, and that the breastplate be not loosed from the ephod. And Aaron shall bear the names of the children of Israel in the breastplate of judgment upon his heart, when he goeth in unto the holy place, for a memorial before the Lord continually.
“In the same year David Arnold (Present Truth, 1:43-45, December, 1849) and the next year Joseph Bates (Review and Herald, 1:22, December, 1850) echoed the phrase ‘breast-plate of judgment,’ and carried the idea further, to equate the coming of the Bridegroom to the wedding with the entrance of the high priest into the Holy of Holies on the Day of Atonement, blotting out the sins of those whose names are on the breastplate (in the antitype, the Israel of God), but neither mentions the judgment.” –S.D.A. Encyclopedia, Commentary Reference Series, vol. 10, p. 671.
BY JAMES WHITE
3. What other idea was introduced by James White in 1850 and 1851 in regard to this doctrine?
Leviticus 6:20-22 This is the offering of Aaron and of his sons, which they shall offer unto the Lord in the day when he is anointed; the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour for a meat offering perpetual, half of it in the morning, and half thereof at night.In a pan it shall be made with oil; and when it is baken, thou shalt bring it in: and the baken pieces of the meat offering shalt thou offer for a sweet savour unto the Lord. And the priest of his sons that is anointed in his stead shall offer it: it is a statute for ever unto the Lord; it shall be wholly burnt.
“James White did not mention the breastplate of judgment in his article in Present Truth, 1:75-79, May, 1850; and in another discussion of the sanctuary doctrine (Review and Herald, 1:29, January, 1851), he mentioned only the removal of sins by placing them on the head of the scapegoat.” –S.D.A. Encyclopedia, Commentary Reference Series, vol. 10, p. 671.
BY JOHN NEVIS ANDREWS
4. What did this prolific writer of the early Seventh-day Adventists state about this subject in 1853?
Leviticus 16:15-19 Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for the people, and bring his blood within the vail, and do with that blood as he did with the blood of the bullock, and sprinkle it upon the mercy seat, and before the mercy seat: And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for the tabernacle of the congregation, that remaineth among them in the midst of their uncleanness. And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy place, until he come out, and have made an atonement for himself, and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel. And he shall go out unto the altar that is before the Lord, and make an atonement for it; and shall take of the blood of the bullock, and of the blood of the goat, and put it upon the horns of the altar round about. And he shall sprinkle of the blood upon it with his finger seven times, and cleanse it, and hallow it from the uncleanness of the children of Israel.
“In 1853 J. N. Andrews wrote a series of articles on the sanctuary. When he came to the cleansing on the Day of Atonement, he mentioned only the blotting out of sins and the transfer of sins to the scapegoat (Review and Herald, 3:147, 148, Feb. 3, 1853).” –S.D.A. Encyclopedia, Commentary Reference Series, vol. 10, p. 671.
BY JOHN NORTON LOUGHBOROUGH
5. How did J. N. Loughborough explain the cleansing of the sanctuary?
1 Peter 4:5, 7, 11 Who shall give account to him that is ready to judge the quick and the dead. … But the end of all things is at hand: be ye therefore sober, and watch unto prayer… If any man speak, let him speak as the oracles of God; if any man minister, let him do it as of the ability which God giveth: that God in all things may be glorified through Jesus Christ, to whom be praise and dominion for ever and ever. Amen.
“However, in 1854, J. N. Loughborough, like William Miller in 1845, connected the cleansing of the sanctuary as a work of judgment with the message of the first angel of Revelation 14: ‘The hour of his judgment is come.’ He asked:
“What was that work of cleansing? Is the work of cleansing the Sanctuary fitly heralded by the first angel’s message? in other words, Is it a work of judgment? For light on this subject, we shall be obliged to go to the type. Let us look at the type. See the high priest preparing himself to cleanse the Sanctuary; almost the first thing he did was to gird upon him the breastplate of judgment. For what does he put that on? It certainly looks as though he was going to do a judgment work….” –S.D.A. Encyclopedia, Commentary Reference Series, vol. 10, p. 671.
BY URIAH SMITH
6. How did Uriah Smith describe the relation between the cleansing of the sanctuary and the judgment of Revelation 14:7?
Revelation 14:7 Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand.
“The next year
“The work of cleansing the earthly sanctuary was a work of judgment. The high priest went into the most holy place, bearing the breastplate of judgment, and on that breastplate the names of the twelve children of Israel, to make an atonement for the whole sanctuary, and for all the people of the congregation. Leviticus 16:33. This prefigured a solemn fact; namely, that in the great plan of salvation, a time of decision was coming for the human race; a work of atonement, which being accomplished, God’s people, the true Israel, should stand acquitted and cleansed from all sin….
“The first angel proclaimed, ‘Fear God and give glory to him; for the hour of his Judgment is come.’ At the end of the 2300 days, when that message closed, had that time come? If the judgment scene which takes place in the second apartment of the Sanctuary, to which this proclamation doubtless refers, did not then commence, it had not come; and the first angel with his message was too fast. But we believe that work did there commence; that there was the time when judgment began at the house of God, and the time came when Daniel, and all the righteous in the person of their Advocate should stand in their lot. (ibid., 7:52-54, Oct. 2, 1855).” –S.D.A. Encyclopedia, Commentary Reference Series, vol. 10, pp. 671, 672.
JAMES WHITE’S FINAL FORMULA
7. How did James White formulate this doctrine?
1 Peter 4:17, 18 For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God? And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?
“Finally, in 1857, James White rounded out the doctrine, using the term ‘investigative judgment’:
‘The time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God, and if it first begin at us, what shall the end be of them that obey not the gospel of God? And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?’ 1 Peter 4:17, 18.
“Both classes will be judged before they are raised from dead. The investigative judgment of the house, or church, of God will take place before the first resurrection; so will the judgment of the wicked take place during the 1000 years of Revelation 20, and they will be raised at the close of that period.” –S.D.A. Encyclopedia, Commentary Reference Series, vol. 10, p. 672.